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JECAM | Joint Experiment for Crop Assessment and Monitoring

Saudi Arabia

Project Overview

Crop identification and acreage estimation: Alkharj Region of Saudi Arabia

Crop biophysical variables (LAI)

Main Project Objectives :

  1. Crop identification and Crop Area Estimation: ASRER image analysis
  2. Crop Condition/Stress
  3. Yield Prediction

Project Reports

2014 Site Progress Report

Publications:

V.C. Patil,  K.A. Al-Gaadi, R. Madugundu, E.Tola, S.A. Marey, A. Al-Dosari, C.M. Biradar and P.H. Gowda. 2014. Assessing crop water productivity in desert farming System of Saudi Arabia, Journal of Special Topics in Applied Earth Observations and Remote Sensing (Under revision).

International Conference:

V.C. Patil, K.A. Al-Gaadi, M. Rangaswamy, E. Tola, and S. Marey. 2013. Crop Water Productivity Mapping Using Aster Imagery For Irrigated Fields Of Al-Kharj Region In Eastern Province Of Saudi Arabia. IEEE International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium (IGARSS 2013) July 21 – 26, 2013. Melbourne, Australia.


Implementation Plans

1. Crop identification and acreage estimation:

The Water Productivity Mapping (WPM) project was initiated on 1st January 2012 in Haradh farm of NADEC and Todhia arable  of Al-Kharj region to fulfill the
following objectives:

  1. To develop and evaluate maps of crop types, cropping intensity and crop productivity.
  2. To evaluate energy balance algorithms for mapping daily and seasonal crop water use at field, landscape and regional scales.
  3. To develop and evaluate water productivity maps of major (irrigated) crops of the region over space and time.
  4. To study accuracies and errors involved in WPM across scales, radiometry and bandwidth.

Ground truth data on crop biophysical parameters such leaf area index (LAI), NDVI and canopy temperature are being recorded for major crops (wheat, alfalfa, Rhodes grass, corn and potato) grown in these farms.

 

The WPM methods and protocols using remote senisng data consist of : (1) crop productivity (t/ha) maps (CPMs) involving crop type classification, crop yield
and biophysical modelling and extrapolating yields models to larger areas using remotely sensed data; (2) Actual seasonal evapotranspiration or actual ET
(WUMs) developed through SABEL / SSEB model; and (3) water productivity (kg/m3) maps (WPMs) produced by dividing raster layers of CPMs by WUMs.

2.  Crop biophysical variables:

3.  Other:


Site Description

Locations

NADEC
Site Extent   Centroid: 24.02 , 49.07
Top left: 24.044 , 48.807 Bottom Right: 23.827 , 49.352

NADEC 31A and 31B
Site Extent   Centroid: 24.02 , 49.18
Top left: 24.039, 49.05 Bottom Right: 24.027, 49.055

Todhia Arable Farm Sub Site
Site Extent   Centroid: 24.176, 48.067
Top left: 24.226, 47.956 Bottom Right: 24.145, 48.087

Todhia Arable Farm
Site Extent   Centroid: 24.224, 47.527
Top left: 24.375, 47.021 Bottom Right: 24.142, 48.089

Figure 1: Todhia Arable Farm, Saudi Arabia

Figure 2: Todhia Arable Farm, Saudi Arabia

Color plate 1: Wheat crop at different growth stages

Color plate 2: Alfalfa field under center pivot irrigation system


Specific Project Objectives & Deliverables

Specific Project Objectives and Deliverables

Main Project Objectives:
 

Mapping Agricultural Areas:

Estimating Crop Areas:

Crop Growing Conditions Over the Growing Season:

Estimation of Biophysical Variables:

Phenological Events:

Integration of the EO-Derived Information Into Crop/Agro-Met Models Crop models, ET mapping and Water Productivity Mapping

Forecasting Agricultural Variables from Crop/Agro-Met Models Crop acreage and production estimates

In Situ Observations

Plans for Next Growing Season: Continue with same approach and order same data for the upcoming year, needs have not yet changed.


In Situ Observations

  1. Parameter: LAI
    Data Collection Protocol:

    LAI measurements on the ground (LAI(G)) were made on the dates of satellite pass using the Plant Canopy Analyzer (Model: PCA – 2200) of Licor Biosciences, USA. At each measurement location, one above canopy and five below canopy readings were recorded to compute a single LAI value. Above and below canopy measurements were made with a ‘‘fisheye’’ optical sensor with 148º angle of view. Respective geo-locations were collected using a handheld Trimble GPS receiver (Model-Geo XH 600). An azimuth mask of 180º view cap was used on PCA-2200 sensor during data collection to block the bright sky for eliminating the shadowing effect of instrument operator.

    Frequency:
  2. Parameter: Spectral Reflectance
    Data Collection Protocol:

    To detect the spectral differences between crop responses to imposed treatments on alfalfa and wheat at both farms, the hyperspectral spectroradiometer “FieldSpec-3” by ASD (Analytical Spectral Devices) was used to collect canopy reflectance data. The FieldSpec-3 spectroradiometer has a spectral range of 350 nm to 2500 nm with a field view of 25 degrees. At the initial stages of crop, in-vitro measurements using “direct contact probe” were made in the lab by collecting geo-referenced samples. At the later stages in-situ measurements were taken by holding the spectroradiometer at a height of 1.5 meters above the canopy with the viewing angle of 25 degrees.

    Frequency:
  3. Parameter: Crop canopy temperature (ºC)
    Data Collection Protocol:

    Canopy temperature measurements were made using a hand-held infrared thermometer of Spectrum Technologies, Plainfield, IL, USA. The mean of three measurements was recorded at the centre of the plot and approximately 0.5 m above the canopy with a 30 angle of view, detecting radiation in the 8–14 µm wave bands. Measurements were recorded between 12:00 to 16:00 hours on cloudless, bright days.

    Frequency:
  4. Parameter: NDVI
    Data Collection Protocol:

    NDVI(G) was measured in the field on the dates of satellite pass, using the Crop Circle (Model: ACS-470) of Holland Scientific, USA. It was calibrated by configuring with a 670-nm filter in channel 1, an NIR filter in channel 2 and a 550-nm filter in channel 3 of the sensor socket for measuring NDVI(G). Map mode measurement with two samples per second was used for field data collection. To determine field data coordinates, an Omnistar GPS receiver (Model 9200-G2) was connected to the Crop Circle at a baud rate of 9600.  Field data measurements were recorded by the crop circle at 1m above the canopy.

    Frequency:

EO Data Requirements

Approximate Start Date of Acquisition: June 1, 2012, preferred April 10, 2012 - peak growing stage of wheat crop
Approximate End Date of Acquisition: May 31, 2015
Spatial Resolution: 0.5 -30 (m) for VNIR (15 preferred) 30- 90 (m) for SWIR (60 or 90 preferred)
Temporal Frequency: 1 month
Latency of Data Delivery: 20 days
Wavelengths Required: All
Across Swath: Yes
Along Track: Yes

SAR Data Requirements

Approximate Start Date of Acquisition: N/A
Approximate End Date of Acquisition: N/A
Spatial Resolution: N/A
Temporal Frequency: N/A
Latency of Data Delivery: N/A
Wavelengths Required: N/A
Polarization N/A
Incidence Angle Restrictions: N/A
Across Track: N/A
Along Track: N/A

Locations

NADEC

Centroid
Latitude: 24.02
Longitude: 49.07

Site Extent
Top left
Latitude: 24.044
Longitude: 49.07
Bottom Right
Latitude: 23.827
Longitude: 49.352

NADEC 31A and 31B

Centroid
Latitude: 24.02
Longitude: 49.18

Site Extent
Top left
Latitude: 24.039
Longitude: 49.18
Bottom Right
Latitude: 24.027
Longitude: 49.055

Todhia Arable Farm Sub Site

Centroid
Latitude: 24.176
Longitude: 48.067

Site Extent
Top left
Latitude: 24.226
Longitude: 48.067
Bottom Right
Latitude: 24.145
Longitude: 48.087

Todhia Arable Farm

Centroid
Latitude: 24.224
Longitude: 47.527

Site Extent
Top left
Latitude: 24.375
Longitude: 47.527
Bottom Right
Latitude: 24.142
Longitude: 48.089


Optical Sensors

Aster - Todhia Site
Imaging Mode: Full Mode
Spatial Resolution: As per VNIR, SWIR and TIR images
Acquisition Frequency: once a month
Pre-Processing Level: Level B1
Application: Crop type mapping, crop condition assessment, yield mapping, ET and Crop Water Productivity Mapping.

Hyperion - Todhia Site
Imaging Mode: Full Mode
Spatial Resolution: 10
Acquisition Frequency: Two images per year during the study period for sub-site co-ordinates (Preferably on the day of pass of World view 2 and Landsat/ASTER satellites.
Pre-Processing Level: Standard / Orthorectied
Application: To develop models for assessing the Moisture Stress Index and Nitrogen Deficiency Index based on field measured NDVI, LAI and hyper spectral reflectance data (ASD Field Spec 3) and Hyperion imagery.

WorldView - Todhia Site
Imaging Mode: Full Mode - VIS, NIR(8) and PAN(1)
Spatial Resolution: 1.85 (MS) and 0.5 (PAN)
Acquisition Frequency: Two images per year during the study period for main site co-ordinates (Preferably on the day of pass of EO-1 (Hyperion) and Landsat/ASTER satellites.
Pre-Processing Level: Two images per year during the study period for main site co-ordinates (Preferably on the day of pass of EO-1 (Hyperion) and Landsat/ASTER satellites.
Application: 1. Site specific management zone delineation, crop type mapping and yield mapping. 2. To develop models for precision fertigaiton of test crops (wheat, alfalfa, Rhodes grass, corn and barley).

Aster - @ Haradh Farm of NADEC
Imaging Mode: Full Mode
Spatial Resolution: As per VNIR, SWIR and TIR Images
Acquisition Frequency: Once a month
Pre-Processing Level: Level 1B
Application: As per VNIR, SWIR and TIR Images

LandSat - Todhia Site
Imaging Mode: Full mode
Spatial Resolution: As per sensor detection
Acquisition Frequency: Monthly for sub-sites co-ordinates
Pre-Processing Level: radiometric(TOA) and geometrically corrested
Application: To assess the periodic crop water stress and to develop prescription maps for precision irrigation for the test crops (Alfalfa, wheat, barley, corn and Rhodes grass).

Hyperion @ Haradh Farm of NADEC
Imaging Mode: Full Mode
Spatial Resolution: 10
Acquisition Frequency: Twice in a study period for sub-site co-ordinates (Preferably on the day of pass of Landsat /ASTER satellites.
Pre-Processing Level: Standard/Ortho rectified
Application: To develop models for assessing the Moisture Stress Index and Nitrogen Deficiency Index based on field measured NDVI, LAI and hyper spectral reflectance data (ASD Field Spec 3) and Hyperion imagery.

MODIS - Todhia Site
Imaging Mode: full mode - all bands
Spatial Resolution: as per sensor dection
Acquisition Frequency: Two images per year during the study period (Preferably on the day of pass of EO-1 (Hyperion), World View -2, and Landsat/ASTER satellites.
Pre-Processing Level: Standard
Application: Extrapolation of developed models to regional level.

Landsat @ Haradh Farm of NADEC
Imaging Mode: Full Mode
Spatial Resolution: As per sensor detection ( all bands V:NIR:SWIR:TIR)
Acquisition Frequency: monthly for sub-site co-ordinates
Pre-Processing Level: Radiometric (TOA)and geometrically corrected
Application: To assess periodic crop water status and to develop prescription maps for precision irrigation for the test crops (Alfalfa, wheat, potato and Rhodes grass)

Quickbird
Imaging Mode: MS
Spatial Resolution: 4m
Acquisition Frequency: 4 times
Pre-Processing Level: 1A
Application:

Modis @ Haradh Farm of NADEC
Imaging Mode: Full Mode
Spatial Resolution: As per sensor description
Acquisition Frequency: Two images per year during the study period (Preferably on the day of pass of EO-1 (Hyperion) and Landsat /ASTER satellites.
Pre-Processing Level: Standard
Application: Extrapolation of developed models to regional level.

JECAM | Joint Experiment for Crop Assessment and Monitoring | Group on Earth Observation

©2013 Joint Experiment for Crop Assessment and Monitoring © HER MAJESTY THE QUEEN IN RIGHT OF CANADA SA MAJESTE LA REINE DU CHEF DU CANADA (2012)