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JECAM | Joint Experiment for Crop Assessment and Monitoring

Paraguay

Project Overview

The project objective is to implement a mapping and monitoring program that can track land cover and crop growth flexible to the three to four crop rotations (usually different crops) that are planted within a single year.

The mapping resolution: Ideally 10 m if possible to account for the smaller land holdings that occur in the region. Some short-wave optical/NIR are being considered (e.g AWiFS resolution 56 m) at a coarser resolution. We would like the reference to remain at 10 m and will adapt analyses to that standard.

Timeliness (with regards to growing season): There are three rotations that start and end variably based on weather and production. The main season for planting is Sept./Oct., however often corn (in particular) is planted in Dec./Jan. and there is a May/June season as well (as described below). We anticipate a primary data acquisition two months post planting for each of these seasons starting winter 2012 although a 2011 November acquisition would be possible if recommended by JECAM.

The current project phase is Research. There are initial operational implementation plans.


Project Reports


Implementation Plans


Site Description

Locations

Paraguay
Site Extent   Centroid: -25.285, -54.916
Top left: -24.514, -55.312 Bottom Right: -26.278, -54.58

The site is located in the Alto Parana Department. Field sizes vary greatly; most individual fields are in the range from 1 to 50 hectares but fields of several hundred hectares are not uncommon. Most important crop types are soybean, wheat and corn, but cotton, sesame and cassava can also be found. Typical Crop Rotation is corn/soybean/wheat.

The crop calendar for soybeans is October/December (depending on the maturity group) planting; February/May harvest. Corn is typically planted in July/September, or alternatively, February/March. Wheat is planted in May/June and harvested in September/October.

The climatic zone is humid subtropical with annual rain precipitation reaching 1800 mm a year. The soil texture is clayey. The landscape is a combination of narrow valleys through which rivers affluent to the Parana River flow, and of undulating high land with elevation of up to 300 m above sea level. The soil drainage class is well drained. The irrigation infrastructure is very limited.


Specific Project Objectives & Deliverables

Mapping Agricultural Areas:

Estimating Crop and Forest Areas

Crop Growing Conditions Over the Growing Season: temperature, precipitation, soil moisture, evapotranspiration (in-field if stations available, otherwise core climate from Itaipu).

Estimation of Biophysical Variables: NDVI, LAI, biomass, fAPAR, yield

Phenological Events

Integration of the EO-Derived Information Into Crop/Agro-Met Models

Forecasting Agricultural Variables from Crop/Agro-Met Models.


In Situ Observations

  1. Parameter:
    Data Collection Protocol:

    To be done in combination with Itaipu Technology Park (PTI for its initials in Spanish) and local Universities as an integrated component of Ph.D. research. In English it is briefly summarized: observations include crop type, cultivated area, crop system, climatologic data, crop phenology, biomass, soil moisture etc. In Spanish the following is being sent to our local partner:
    tipo de cultivo, superficie cultivada, sistema de cultivo (siembra directa/tradicional, sentido de surcos, etc.);  datos climatológicos tales como temperatura, precipitación, HR; estado fenológico, biomasa, densidad/espaciamiento/altura de plantas; humedad del suelo (posiblemente), entre otras (cuya factibilidad se discutirá en un futuro cercano).

    Frequency:

EO Data Requirements

Approximate Start Date of Acquisition: May 1, 2011, May shift slightly from one year to next due to changes in moisture/temperatures
Approximate End Date of Acquisition: October 1, 2012, May shift slightly from one year to next due to changes in moisture/temperatures
Spatial Resolution: 60 m (min), 30 m (preferred)
Temporal Frequency: 5 times over season, One acquisition over bare soil conditions; Then approximately one acquisition per month
Latency of Data Delivery: weekly
Wavelengths Required: B,G,R,NIR
Across Swath: 35 km, Cover entire Alto Parana study area
Along Track: 50 km, Cover entire Alto Parana study area

SAR Data Requirements

Approximate Start Date of Acquisition: May 1, 2011, May shift slightly from one year to next due to changes in moisture/temperatures
Approximate End Date of Acquisition: October 31, 2012, May shift slightly from one year to next due to changes in moisture/temperatures
Spatial Resolution: 30 m (min), 10 m (preferred), Requires higher resolution due to SAR speckle
Temporal Frequency: 5 times over season
Latency of Data Delivery: weekly
Wavelengths Required: X, C and L, Require higher frequencies for lower biomass crop identification and lower frequencies for larger biomass crops
Polarization Quad (HH, HV,VV,VH) (min), polarimetric (preferred)
Incidence Angle Restrictions: No restriction
Across Track: 100 km (min), Entire Alto Parana study area (preferred)
Along Track: 50 km (min), Entire Alto Parana study area (preferred)

Locations

Paraguay

Centroid
Latitude: -25.285
Longitude: -54.916

Site Extent
Top left
Latitude: -24.514
Longitude: -54.916
Bottom Right
Latitude: -26.278
Longitude: -54.58


Optical Sensors

Landsat-5/7
Imaging Mode: Multi-spectral
Spatial Resolution: 30 m
Acquisition Frequency: All cloud free data over entire Alto Parana study area
Pre-Processing Level: Radiometrically Corrected and Geo-coded
Application:

AWiFS
Imaging Mode:
Spatial Resolution: 56 m
Acquisition Frequency: All cloud free data over entire Alto Parana study area
Pre-Processing Level: Radiometrically Corrected and Geo-coded
Application:

JECAM | Joint Experiment for Crop Assessment and Monitoring | Group on Earth Observation

©2013 Joint Experiment for Crop Assessment and Monitoring © HER MAJESTY THE QUEEN IN RIGHT OF CANADA SA MAJESTE LA REINE DU CHEF DU CANADA (2012)