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JECAM | Joint Experiment for Crop Assessment and Monitoring

Morocco - Tensift

Project Overview

Tensift, Morocco - The Haouz Plain

The semi-arid agricultural plain of the Haouz, in the Tensift Watershed in Morocco is the most important area in terms of potential water savings, and 85% of the mobilized water is used for irrigation. It includes traditional and modern irrigation, flood and drip irrigation, with water coming either from dams, river diversion or groundwater abstraction.  The vegetation is composed of tree plantations (mainly olive groves and oranges) and annual crops (cereals, market gardening) or multi (alfalfa) frequently grown in sub-stratum of trees. The extent and location of the annual crops vary from one year to another, depending on water availability. In the semi-arid agricultural plain, the challenge is to understand the functioning of water surfaces (mainly vertical water flow), in conjunction with plant production, following a series of questions of increasing complexity: Estimation of the actual evapotranspiration? Partition between soil evaporation and transpiration covered? Assessment of water needs of crops? Evaluation of volumes of irrigation water in discerning their origin? Evaluation of irrigation methods used?

Project Objectives


Project Reports

2017 Site Progress Report

2016 Site Progress Report

2015 Site Progress Report

2014 Site Progress Report

Published Articles

2017

Malbéteau Y., O. Merlin, G. Balsamo, S. Er-Raki, S. Khabba, J.P. Walker, L. Jarlan, 2017. Towards a soil moisture product at high spatio-temporal resolution: temporally-interpolated spatially-disaggregated SMOS data based on precipitation. Journal of Hydrometeorology, accepted.

Ayyoub, A., Khabba, S., Er-Raki, S., Merlin, O. and Bahlaoui, A. (2017). Calibration and validation of the Penman-Monteith model for estimating evapotranspiration of an orange orchard in semi-arid region. Acta Hortic. 1150, 15-22. https://doi.org/10.17660/ActaHortic.2017.1150.3

Nassah, H., Er-Raki, S., Khabba, S., Fakir, Y., Ezzahar, J., Hanich, L. and Merlin, O. (2017). Evaluation of deep percolation in irrigated citrus orchards in the semi-arid region of Tensift Al Haouz, Morocco. Acta Hortic. 1150, 145-152. https://doi.org/10.17660/ActaHortic.2017.1150.21

Abdellatif Ayyoub, Salah Er-Raki, Saïd Khabba Khabba, Olivier Merlin, Julio Cesar Rodriguez, Jamal Ezzahar, Ahmed Bahlaoui, and Abdelghani Chehbouni. A simple and alternative approach based on reference evapotranspiration and leaf area index for estimating tree transpiration in semi-arid regions.. Agricultural Water Management, in press, 2017.

Luis Enrique Olivera-Guerra, Cristian Mattar, Olivier Merlin, Claudio Durán-Alarcón, Andrés Santamaría-Artigas and Rodrigo Fuster. An operational method for the disaggregation of land surface temperature to estimate actual evapotranspiration in the arid region of Chile. International Journal of Applied Earth Observation and Geoinformation, in press, 2017.

Stefan V., O. Merlin, B. Molero, B. Aït-Hssaine, M.-J. Escorihuela, P. Quintana-Seguí, S. Er-Raki, 2017. Improving the physics and robustness of an evaporation-based disaggregation method of SMOS soil moisture data. Submitted to Remote Sensing of Environment.

Jian Peng, Alexander Loew, Olivier Merlin, Niko E. C. Verhoest, 2017. Spatial downscaling of remotely sensed soil moisture. Reviews of Geophysics, under review.

Alhousseine Diarra, Lionel Jarlan, Salah Er-Raki; Michel Le Page, Ghizlane Aouade, Adrien Tavernier, Gilles Boulet, Jamal Ezzahar, Olivier Merlin, Said Khabba, 2017. Performance of the two-source energy budget (TSEB) model for the monitoring of evapotranspiration over irrigated annual crops in North Africa. Agricultural Water Management, in revision.

Andreas Colliander, Josh Fisher, Olivier Merlin et al. SMAP soil moisture disaggregation with MODIS during SMAPVEX15. In preparation for Remote Sensing of Environment.

2016 

Malbéteau Y., O. Merlin, S. Gascoin, J.P. Gastellu, C. Mattar, L. Olivera-Guerra, S. Khabba, L. Jarlan, Normalizing land surface temperature data for elevation and illumination effects in mountainous areas: A case study using ASTER data over a steep-sided valley in Morocco, Remote Sensing of Environment, Volume 189, February 2017, Pages 25-39, ISSN 0034-4257, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.rse.2016.11.010.

Merlin O., V. Stefan, A. Amazirh, A. Chanzy, E. Ceschia, S. Er-Raki, P. Gentine, T. Tallec, J. Ezzahar, S. Bircher, J. Beringer, S. Khabba: Modeling soil evaporation efficiency in a range of soil and atmospheric conditions using a meta-analysis approach. Water Resources Research, 52, May 2016, pp 3663–3684 2016, http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/2015WR018233.

Merlin, O., Olivera-Guerra, L., Aït Hssaine, B., Amazirh, A., Rafi, Z., Gentine, P., Ezzahar, J., Er-Raki, S.. A phenomenological model of soil evaporative efficiency using readily available data. In preparation for Agricultural and Forest Meteorology.

2015

Belaqziz, S., S. Mangiarotti, M. Le Page, S. Khabba, S. Er-Raki, T. Agouti, L. Drapeau, M.H. Kharrou, M. El Adnani, and L. Jarlan. 2014. “Irrigation Scheduling of a Classical Gravity Network Based on the Covariance Matrix Adaptation – Evolutionary Strategy Algorithm.” Computers and Electronics in Agriculture 102: 64–72.

Jarlan, L, J Abaoui, B Duchemin, A Ouldbba, Y M Tourre, S Khabba, M Le Page, R Balaghi, A Mokssit, and G Chehbouni. 2014. “Linkages between Common Wheat Yields and Climate in Morocco (1982-2008).” International journal of biometeorology 2014, 58 (7), p. 1489-1502. ISSN 0020-7128

Le Page M., Jihad Toumi , Saïd Khabba, Olivier Hagolle, Adrien Tavernier,M. Hakim Kharrou, Salah Er-Raki, Mireille Huc , Mohamed Kasbani , Abdelilah El Moutamanni, Mohamed Yousfi  and Lionel Jarlan, A Life-Size and Near Real-Time Test of Irrigation Scheduling with a Sentinel-2 Like Time Series (SPOT4-Take5) in Morocco, Remote Sensing, 2014, 6, 11182-11203; doi:10.3390/rs61111182.

Merlin, Olivier, Yoann Malbéteau, Youness Notfi, Stefan Bacon, and Salah Er-raki. 2015. “Performance Metrics for Soil Moisture Downscaling Methods : Application to DISPATCH Data in Central Morocco.” Remote Sensing, minor revision

Merlin, Olivier, Jonas Chirouze, Albert Olioso, Lionel Jarlan, Ghani Chehbouni, and Gilles Boulet. 2014. “An Image-Based Four-Source Surface Energy Balance Model to Estimate Crop Evapotranspiration from Solar Reflectance/thermal Emission Data (SEB-4S).” AGRICULTURAL AND FOREST METEOROLOGY 184: 188–203.

Mangiarotti, S., L. Drapeau, and C. Letellier. 2014. “Two Chaotic Models for Cereal Crops Cycles Observed from Satellite in Northern Morocco.” Chaos: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Non linear Science 24: 023130

Toumi, J., Er-Raki, S., Ezzahar, J., Khabba, S., Jarlan, L.  2015. Calibration and Validation of the Aquacrop model for estimating evapotranspiration and grain yields of winter wheat in semi-arid region of Tensift Al-Haouz (Marrakech, Morocco): application to manage water irrigation. Agricultural and Water Management, en revision.

Vivien G. Stefan, Olivier Merlin, Salah Er-Raki, Maria-José Escorihuela, and Said Khabba, 2015.  Consistency between in situ, model-derived and image-based soil temperature endmembers: towards a robust data-based model for multi-resolution monitoring of crop evapotranspiration. Submitted to  Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci.

2013

Amenzou, N., Marah, H., Raibi, F., Ezzahar, J., Khabba, S., Jarlan L.,, Ismaili, M.; Estimation of soil evaporation and infiltration losses using stables isotopes, Fluxmeter and Eddy-Covariance system for citrus orchards in a semi-arid region (Morocco); Academia Journal of Environmental Sciences,1 (1): 001-008 (2013).

Belaqziz, S., Khabba, S., Er-Raki, S., Jarlan, L., Le Page, M., Kharrou, M.H., Adnani, M.E., Chehbouni, A., 2013, A new irrigation priority index based on remote sensing data for assessing the networks irrigation scheduling, Agricultural Water Management, 119, pp. 19.

Belaqziz S., Mangiarotti S., Le Page, M., Khabba S., Er-Raki S., Agouti T., Drapeau L., Kharrou M.H., El Adnani M., Jarlan L., 2014, Irrigation scheduling of a classical gravity network based on the Covariance Matrix Adaptation -Evolutionary Strategy algorithm, Computer and Electronics in Agriculture, 102: 64-72

Belaqziz, S., El Fazziki, A., Mangiarotti, S., Le Page, M., Khabba, S., Er-Raki, S., El Adnani, M., Jarlan, L. 2013. An agent based modeling for the gravity irrigation management. Procedia Environmental Sciences, 19, 804-813.

Bossé Bruno, Bruno Bussière, Rachid Hakkou, Abdelkabir Maqsoud and Mostafa Benzaazoua (2013) Assessment of Phosphate Limestone Wastes as a Component of a Store-and-Release Cover in a Semiarid Climate. Mine Water and Environment, Volume 32, Issue 2, pp 152-167.

Bossé Bruno, Bruno Bussière, Abdelkabir Maqsoud, Rachid Hakkou and Mostafa Benzaazoua (2013) Influence of Water Retention Curve Hysteresis on the Behavior of a Store-and-Release Cover, Engineering Geology Journal,  Réf ENGEO-S-13-00779

Boussetta, S., Balsamo, G., Beljaars, A., Kral, T., Jarlan, L., 2013, Impact of a satellite-derived leaf area index monthly climatology in a global numerical weather prediction model, International Journal of Remote Sensing, 34 (9-10), pp. 3520-3542.

Boussetta S., Balsamo G., Beljaars A., Agusti-Panareda A., Calvet J.C., Jacobs C., Van den Hurk B., Viterbo P., Lafont S., Dutra E., Jarlan L. , Balzarolo M., Papale D., Van der Werf G., 2013, Natural land carbon dioxide exchanges in the ECMWF Integrated Forecasting System:  Implementation and offline validation, accepted for publication in Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmosphere, May 2013.

Chirouze, J., Boulet G., Jarlan, L., Fieuzal, R., Garatuza-Payan, J., Watts, C., Rodriguez, J.C., Ezzahar, J., Er-raki, S., Merlin O. and G. Chehbouni, Inter-comparison of four remote sensing based surface energy balance methods to retrieve surface evapotranspiration and hydric stress of irrigated fields in semi-arid climate, Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, en revision.

Diarra, A., Jarlan, L., Er-Raki, S., Le Page, M., Khabba, S., Bigeard G., Tavernier, A., Chirouze, J., Fanise, P., Moutammani, A., Ezzahar, J., Kharrou, M.H., Chehbouni, G. 2013. Characterization of evapotranspiration over irrigated crops in a semi-arid area (Marrakech, Morocco) using an energy budget model. Procedia Environmental Sciences, 19, 504-513.

El Himer H., Y. Fakir , T. Y. Stigter , M. Le Page , A. El Mandour & L. Ribeiro (2013): Assessment of groundwater vulnerability to pollution of a wetland watershed: The case study of the Oualidia-Sidi Moussa wetland, Morocco, Aquatic Ecosystem Health & Management, 16:2,205-215.

Goumih. A, El Adnani. M, Hakkou. R, Benzaazoua. M, (2013) Geochemical Behavior of the Mine Tailings and Waste Rock atthe Abandoned Cu-Mo-W Azegour Mine (Occidental High Atlas, Morocco),  Mine Water and Environment, Volume 32, Issue 2, pp 121-132

Khabba, S., Jarlan, L., Er-Raki, S., Le Page, M., Ezzahar, J., Boulet, G., Simonneaux, V., Kharrou, MH., Hanich, L., Chehbouni, G. 2013. The SudMed program and the Joint International Laboratory TREMA:  A decade of water transfer study in the Soil-Plant-Atmosphere system over irrigated crops in semi-arid area. Procedia Environmental Sciences, 19, 524-533.

Khalil A., L. Hanich , A. Bannari , L. Zouhri , O. Pourret and R. Hakkou  (2013) Assessment of soil contamination around an abandoned mine in a semi-arid environment using geochemistry and geostatistics: Pre-work of geochemical process modeling with numerical models. Journal of Geochemical Exploration, 25, 117-129.

Khalil A., L. Hanich, R. Hakkou and  M. Lepage (2013)  GIS-Based Environmental Database for Assessing Pollution Around Abandoned Mines in Morocco: The Kettara Mine Site as a Case Study, Journal of Geochemical Exploration (JGE, Elsevier). Special Issue (Environmental and Health Impacts of Mining in Africa) Réf: GEXPLO-S-13-00231

Kharrou M.H., M. Le Page, A. Chehbouni, V. Simonneaux, S. Er-Raki, L. Jarlan, L Ouzine, S. Khabba, G.  Chehbouni, 2013. “Assessment of equity and adequacy of water delivery in irrigation systems using remote sensing-based indicators in semi-arid region, Morocco”, Water Ressources Management, DOI: 10.1007/s11269-013-0438-5.

Lghoul M.; A. Maqsoud; R. Hakkou and A. Kchikach (2013) Groundwater Hydrogeochemical behavior around the abandoned Kettara mine site, Morocco), Journal of Geochemical Exploration (JGE, Elsevier). Special Issue (Environmental and Health Impacts of Mining in Africa) Réf:  RGEXPLO-S-13-00257

Jarlan L., Abaoui J., Duchemin B., Tourre Y., Ouldbba A., Mangiarotti S., Kharrou H., Khabba S., Ballaghi R., Le Page M., Mokssit A., Chehbouni A., 2013, Déterminants climatiques de la variabilité interannuelle des rendements en céréales et prévision précoce. Application à la province de Settat (Maroc), accepté pour publication dans Revue Française de Photogrammétrie et Télédétection, 11 pages.

Jarlan L., Driouech F., Duchemin B., Tourre Y., Abaoui J., Bouysse M., Ouldbba A., Mokssit A. and Chehbouni G, 2013, Vegetation dynamics over Morocco (1982 – 2008):  Linkages with climate signals and seasonal prediction, International Journal of Climatology, DOI: 10.1002/joc.3762.

Jarlan L., Abaoui J., Duchemin B., Ouldbba A., Tourre Y., Khabba S., Balaghi R., Mokssit A., Chehbouni G., 2013, Linkages between Wheat Yields and Climate (1982-2008), accepted for publication in International Journal of Biometeorology.

Loutou M., M.Hajjaji, M.Mansori,C. Favotto and R.Hakkou (2013) Phosphate sludge: thermal transformation and use as lightweight aggregate material. Journal of Environmental Management, (sous press) pp-1-7, DOI:10.1016/j.jenvman.2013.09.004

Marchane A., Jarlan L., Hanich L., Boudhar A., 2013, Caractérisation de l’enneigement sur l’Atlas marocain par le capteur MODIS et relation avec le climat (période 2000-2011), accepté pour publication dans Revue Française de Photogrammétrie et Télédétection, 14 pages.

Merlin O., Chirouze J., Olioso A., Jarlan J., Chehbouni G., Boulet G., 2013, A self-calibrated optical-based four-source surface energy balance model to estimate crop evapotranspiration and water deficit (SEB-4S), accepted for publication in Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, April 2013.

Ouakibi O., Loqman. S, Hakkou. R, Benzaazoua. M, (2013) The Potential Use of Phosphatic Limestone Wastes in the Passive Treatment of AMD: a Laboratory Study, Mine Water and Environment,  sous press,  DOI: 10.1007/s10230-013-0226-8

2012

Benhadj I., Duchemin B., Simonneaux V., Maisongrande P., Khabba S., Chehbouni A.G., 2012, Automatic unmixing of MODIS multi-temporal data for inter-annual monitoring of land use at regional scale (Tensift, Morocco). International Journal of Remote Sensing, 33(5):1325-1348.

Boulet, G., Olioso, A., Ceschia, E., Marloie, O., Coudert, B., Rivalland, V., Chirouze, J., Chehbouni, G., 2012. An empirical expression to relate aerodynamic and surface temperatures for use within single-source energy balance models. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 161: 148-155.

Claverie, M.; Demarez, V.; Duchemin, B.; Hagolle, O.; Ducrot, D.; Marais-Sicre, C.; Dejoux, J.F.; Huc, M.; Keravec, P.; Béziat, P.; Fieuzal, R.; Ceschia, E.; Dedieu, G., 2012, Maize and sunflower biomass estimation in southwest France using high spatial and temporal resolution sensing data, Remote Sensing of Environment, 124, pp. 844-867

Delogu, E., Boulet, G., Olioso, A., Coudert, B., Chirouze, J., Ceschia, E., Le Dantec, V., Marloie, O., Chehbouni, G., Lagouarde, J.P., 2012. Reconstruction of temporal variations of evapotranspiration using instantaneous estimates at the time of satellite overpass. Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, 16(8): 2995-3010.

Er-Raki, S., Khabba, S., Er-raji, T., A., Ezzahar, J., Jarlan, L., Hanich, L., Chehbouni, G., 2012. Evaluation of the sap flow measurements determined with Heat Balance Method for citrus orchards in semi-arid region. Acta Horticulturae, 951: 259-268.

Ezzahar, J., Er-Raki, S., Marah, H., Khabba, S., Amenzou, N. Chehbouni, G., 2012. Coupling Soil-Vegetation-Atmosphere-Transfer model with Energy Balance model for estimating energy and water vapor fluxes over an olive orchard in semi-arid region. Global Changes, 1 (e1): 1-8.

Le Page M., Berjamy B., Fakir Y., Bourgin F., Jarlan L., Abourida A.,Benrhanem M., Jacob G., Huber M., Sghrer, F., Simonneaux V., Chehbouni G., 2012, An integrated DSS for groundwater management based on Remote Sensing. The case of a semi-arid aquifer in Morocco, Water Resources Management, 26(11) : 3209-3230 , DOI: 10.1007/s11269-012-0068-3.

Lghoul M., Kchikach A., Hakkou R., Zouhri L., Guérin R., Bendjoudi H., Teixido T., Peña J.A., Enrique L., Jaffal M., Hanich L., 2012. Etude géophysique et hydrogéologique du site minier abandonné de Kettara (région de Marrakech, Maroc) : contribution au projet de réhabilitation. Hydrological Sciences Journal, 57 (2), 370–381

Lghoul M., Teixidó T., Peña J. A., Hakkou R., Kchikach A., Guérin R., Jaffal M. and Zouhri L. (2012)  Electrical and Seismic Tomography Used to Image the Structure of a Tailings Pond at the Abandoned Kettara Mine, Morocco. Mine Water and Environment, Volume 31, Issue 1, pp 53-61

Mangiarotti S., Coudret R., Drapeau L. & Jarlan L., 2012. Polynomial search and Global modelling: two algorithms for modeling chaos. Physical Review E 86(4), 046205.

Mangiarotti S., Martinez J.-M., Bonnet M.-P., Buarque D.C., Filizola N. & Mazzega P., 2012. Water Flow and Solid Suspended Particles Flow Estimated along the Mainstream of the Amazon and the Madeira Rivers (from in situ and MODIS Satellite Data). International Journal of Applied Earth Observation and Geoinformation, doi: 10.1016/j.jag.2012.07.015.

Mangiarotti S., Sekhar M., Berthon L., Javeed Y., & P. Mazzega, 2012. Causality Analysis of Groundwater dynamics based on a Vector Autoregressive model in the semi-arid basin of Gundal (South India). Journal of Applied Geophysics, 83, 1–10, doi: 10.1016/j.jappgeo.2012.04.003.

Mangiarotti S., Mazzega P., Mougin E. & Hiernaux P., 2012. Predictability of vegetation cycles over the semi-arid region of Gourma (Mali) from forecasts of AVHRR-NDVI signals. Remote Sensing of Environment, doi: 10.1016/j.rse.2012.03.011, 123, 246–257.

Martin A., Boutin J., Hauser D., Reverdin G., Parde M., Zribi Mehrez, Fanise Pascal, Chanut J., Lazure P., Tenerelli J., Reul N. Remote sensing of sea surface salinity from carols l-band radiometer in the gulf of Biscay. IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, 2012, 50 (5), p. 1703-1715. ISSN 0196-2892

Merlin O., Jacob Frédéric, Wigneron J. P., Walker J., Chehbouni Abdelghani. Multidimensional disaggregation of land surface temperature using high-resolution red, near-infrared, shortwave-infrared, and microwave-l bands. IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, 2012, 50 (5), p. 1864-1880. ISSN 0196-2892

Oufline R, Hakkou R., Hanich L and Boularbah A (2012) Impact of Human Activities on the Physico-chemical Quality of Surface Water and Groundwater in the North of Marrakech (Morocco). Environmental Technology,  Volume 33, Issue 18, pp 2077-2088

Zribi, M.; Kotti, F.; Lili-Chabaane, Z.; Baghdadi, N.; Ben Issa, N.; Amri, R.; Duchemin, B.; Chehbouni, A. (2012). Soil Texture Estimation Over a Semiarid Area Using TerraSAR-X Radar Data. IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Letters, 10.1109/LGRS.2011.2168379, WOS:000301236900007.

Conferences

Maria Jose Escorihuela, O. Merlin, S. Er-Raki, F. Ferrer, Q. Gao, O. A. Eweys, L. Olivera, A. Amazirh, B. AitHssaine, M. Fontanet, S. Khabba and M. Zribi. Estimation of high temporal and spatial resolution soil moisture for crop irrigation management by multi-sensor remote sensing approach. Recent Advances in Quantitative Remote Sensing 2017, Valencia, Spain.

Olivier Merlin, Luis Olivera-Guerra, Bouchra Aït Hssaine, Abdelhakim Amazirh, Yoann Malbéteau, Vivien Stefan, Beatriz Molero, Zoubair Rafi, Maria José Escorihuela, J. Ezzahar, S. Khabba, J. Walker, Y. Kerr, V. Simonneaux and S. Er-Raki. EVAPORATION-BASED DISAGGREGATION OF SURFACE SOIL MOISTURE DATA: THE DISPATCH METHOD, THE CATDS PRODUCT AND ON-GOING RESEARCH, IGARSS 2017.

Amazirh A., O. Merlin, S. Er-Raki, S. Khabba, L. Olivera, C. Mattar Modelling root-zone soil moisture from observed and simulated surface fluxes. WECC 2016, Marrakech, Morocco.

Malbéteau Y., Merlin O., Jarlan L., Khabba S., Escorihuela M.J., Molero B., Kerr Y.. Towards a soil moisture product at high-spatio-temporal resolution: time interpolation of spatially-disaggregated SMOS data based on high-frequency precipitation data. ESA Living Planet 2016, Praga, Tchec rep..

Vivien Georgiana Stefan, Olivier Merlin, Maria José Escorihuela, Bouchra AïtHssaine, Beatriz Molero, Jamal Ezzahar, Salah Er-Raki, Ahmad Al Bitar, and Yann Kerr. Towards a robust evaporation-based disaggregation method of SMOS soil moisture by combining high-resolution shortwave/thermal and available meteorological data. European Geophysical Union 2016, Vienna, Austria.

Aithssaine B., J. Ezzahar, L. Jarlan, O. Merlin, S. Khabba and S.Er-Raki. Combining a two source energy balance model, aggregation approach  and MODIS  data to estimate area-averged turbulent fluxes during the AMMA experiment. WECC 2016, Marrakech, Morocco.

Bouchra Ait Hssaine, Jamal Ezzahar, Lionel Jarlan, Olivier Merlin, Said Khabba, Aurore Brut, Salah Er-Raki, Bernard Cappelaere and Ghani Chehbouni. Combining a thermal-based two source energy balance model driven by MODIS observations and an aggregation scheme to estimate surface tubulent fluxes in heterogeneous conditions over small catchment in West Africa (Wankama, Niger). INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE on ADVANCED TECHNOLOGIES FOR SIGNAL& IMAGE PROCESSING 2017, Marrakech, Morocco.

Maria Jose Escorihuela, Cyril Piou, Olivier Merlin, Mehrez Zribi, Omar Ali Eweys and Benjamin Koetz. Soil Moisture for dEsert Locust earLy Survey- SMELLS project. ESA Living Planet 2016, Praga, Tchec rep..

Al Bitar A., Merlin O., Malbeteau Y., Molero B., Zribi M., Sekhar M., Tomer S., Escorihuela M.J.,  Vivien S., Suere C.,  Mialon A., Kerr Y. On the use of L-band microwave and multi-mission EO data from optical and radar for high resolution soil moisture. European Geophysical Union 2017, Vienna, Austria.

Jamal Ezzahar, Abdelghani Chehbouni, Salah Er-Raki, Ghizlane Aouade, Said Khabba, Olivier Merlin, Gilles Boulet, and Lionel Jarlan. A Two-source Energy Balance Model for estimating evapotranspiration over an olive orchard in a semi-arid region of Morocco. European Geophysical Union 2016, Vienna, Austria.

Er-Raki S., A. Amazirh, Luis Olivera-Guerra, S. Khabba, O. Merlin, J. Ezzahar, V. Simonneaux, A. Chehbouni and L. Jarlan. Using the selective assimilation procedure of soil moisture data in FAO-56 model for improving evapotranspiration estimates over wheat crop in a semi-arid region. Recent Advances in Quantitative Remote Sensing 2017, Valencia, Spain.

Jarlan L., Zribi M., Le Page M., Khabba S., Merlin O., Lili Chahbane Z., Le Dantec V., Al Bitar A., Simonneaux V., Er-Raki S., Mougenot B., Drapeau L. and Boulet G.. Remote sensing indicators of drought and plant water stress from multi-spectral remote sensing observations for the South Mediterranean region. HYMEX workshop 2016, Spain.

Le Dantec V., Wafa Chebbi, G. Boulet, Olivier Merlin, Zohra Lili Chabaane, Salah Er Raki, Eric Ceschia, Said Khabba, Pascal Fanise, Bartosz Zawilski, Vincent Simonneaux, Lionel Jarlan. Photochemical Reflectance Index (PRI) as a Proxy of Light Use Efficiency (LUE) and Transpiration in Mediterranean Crop Sites. American Geophysical Union 2016, San Francisco, USA.

Le Dantec, Valerie; Chebbi, Wafa; Boulet, Gilles; Er Raki, Salah; Lili Chabaane, Zohra; Khabba, Said; Fanise, Pascal; Zawilski, Bartosz; Ceschia, Eric; Merlin, Olivier; Simonneaux, Vincent; Jarlan, Lionel. Photochemical Reflectance Index (PRI) as a proxy of Light Use Efficiency (LUE) and transpiration in Mediterranean crop sites. FLEX workshop 2017, Frascati, Italy.

Sabah Sabaghy, Jeffrey Walker, Luigi Renzullo,  Ruzbeh Akbar, Narendra Das, Richard de Jeu, Dara Entekhabi, Anouk Gevaert, Thomas Jackson, Olivier Merlin, Mahta Moghaddam, Maria Piles, Chris Rüdiger, and Vivien Stefan. An evaluation of optical-, radar- and radiometer- based downscaling approaches. 3rd Satellite Soil Moisture Validation and Application Workshop, April 2016, New York, USA.

Sabah Sabaghy, Jeffrey Walker, Luigi Renzullo, Ruzbeh Akbar, Steven Chan, Julian Chaubell, Narendra Das, R. Scott Dunbar, Dara Entekhabi, Anouk Gevaert, Thomas Jackson, Olivier Merlin, Mahta Moghaddam, Jinzheng Peng, Jeffrey Piepmeier, Maria Piles, Christoph Rüdiger, Vivien Stefan, Xiaoling Wu, Nan Ye, and Simon Yueh. COMPARISON OF DOWNSCALING TECHNIQUES FOR HIGH RESOLUTION SOIL MOISTURE MAPPING. IGARSS 2017. 

Nan Ye, Jeffrey Walker, Xiaoling Wu, Thomas Jackson, Luigi Renzullo, Olivier Merlin, Christoph Rüdiger, Dara Entekhabi, Richard DeJeu, and Edward Kim.  TOWARDS VALIDATION OF SMAP: SMAPEX-4 & -5.  IGARSS 2016, 

Le Page M., Khabba S., Simonneaux V., Belaqziz S., Kharrou M.H., Er-Rak S., Berjamy B., Fakir Y., Duchemin B., Boulet G., Mougenot B., Lili Chaabane Z., Hagolle O., Chehbouni G., Jarlan L. 2014. Remote Sensing Time Series for Water Management of Irrigated Areas in Semi-Arid Regions. Sentinel-2 for Science Workshop, 20 - 22 May 2014, Frascati, Italy

Er-Raki, S., Khabba, S., Ezzahar, J., Jarlan, L., Chehbouni, G. 2014. Using the Heat Balance Method to measure sap flow (Transpiration) of olives and Citrus Orchards in Semi-Arid Region of Morocco. 7th International Conference on Thermal Engineering: Theory and Applications, May 6-8, 2014, Marrakesh-Morocco.

Khabba, S., Er-Raki, S., Le Page, M., Hamaoui, A., Jarlan, L. 2014. Evapotranspiration of an orange orchard in the semi-arid conditions: Calibration and validation of the Penman-Monteith Model. 7th International Conference on Thermal Engineering: Theory and Applications, May 6-8, 2014, Marrakesh-Morocco.

Diarra, A., Jarlan, L., Er-Raki, S., Khabba, S., Le Page, M. 2014. Using the Two Source Energy Balance (TSEB) approach for estimating latent heat flux of irrigated crops in semi-arid area of Marrakech (Morocco). 7th International Conference on Thermal Engineering: Theory and Applications, May 6-8, 2014, Marrakesh-Morocco.

Toumi, J., Le Page, M., Er-Raki, S., Khabba, S., Ezzahar, J., Tavarnier, A., El Moutamanni, A., Kharrou, M.H., Hagolle, O., Jarlan, L. Simulations of water and energy fluxes of Winter Wheat into Soil-Plant-Atmosphere in semi-arid region: test of SAMIR software in the context of the SPOT4-Take5 experiment. 7th International Conference on Thermal Engineering: Theory and Applications, May 6-8, 2014, Marrakesh-Morocco.

Toumi, J., Le Page, M., Er-Raki, S., Khabba, S., Tavarnier, A., Kharrou, M.H., Belaqziz, S., Ezzahar, J., Jarlan, L. 2014. Potentialités de l'imagerie satellitaire pour le pilotage de l’irrigation  en conditions réelles: Test du logiciel SAMIR pour une culture du blé  dans la région Tensift Al Haouz/Marrakech. Journées Méditerranéens des Systèmes d’Informations de l’Eau. 20- 21 Mars, Rabat, Maroc.

L. Jarlan, S. Khabba, M. Le Page, S. Er-Raki, L. Hanich, Y. Fakir, S. Mangiarotti, J. Ezzahar, M.H. Kharrou, B. Berjamy, O. Merlin,  A. Saaïdi, S. Gascoin, A. Boudhar, M. Leblanc, G. Boulet, A. Benkaddour, J. Abaoui, V. Simonneaux, F. Driouech, S. Belaqziz, G. Bigeard, G. Boulet, F. Raibi, J. Chirouze, B. Coudert, L. Drapeau, M. El Adnani, A. El Fazziki, O. Hagolle, N. Laftouhi, A. El Mandour, A. Marchane, A. Diarra, G. Aouade, J. Toumi, Y. Hajhouji, P. Fanise, H. Ibouh, N. Filali,  B. Mougenot, H. Marah, A. Mokssit, Y. Kerr, G. Chehbouni. 2014. Remote Sensing of Water Resources in the semi-arid Mediterranean areas: The Joint International Laboratory TREMA. 4th International Symposium Recent Advances in Quantitative Remote Sensing Torrent (Valencia), Spain, 22-26 September 2014.

Mroos K., Baroni G., Er-Raki S., Francke T., Khabba S., Jarlan L., Hanich L., Oswald S.E., 2014. Assessment of the soil water balance by the combination of cosmic ray neutron sensing and eddy covariance technique in an irrigated citrus orchard (Marrakesh, Morocco). European Geosciences Union General Assembly, Vienna, Austria 27 April – 02 May 2014.

Leblanc M., Gascoin S., Le Page M., Fakir Y., Hanich L., Khabba S.,  Jarlan L., Leblanc S., Leduc C., 2014. Intensification of groundwater use in the Mediterranean region observed at different scales. European Geosciences Union General Assembly, Vienna, Austria 27 April – 02 May 2014.

Merlin O., Y. Malbéteau, V. Stefan, S. Er−Raki, M. J. Escorihuela, S. Gascoin, S. Khabba, V. Le Dantec, C. Mattar, B. Molero, C. Rüdiger, L. Jarlan, Thermal Infrared: key integrator of multi−spectral/multi−resolution data for surface energy water balance studies in semi−arid regions, Recent Advances in Quantitative Remote Sensing, Valencia, Spain, Sept.

Book Chapters

Cheggour A., Simonneaux Vincent, Roose Eric. Effets des plantations forestières sur banquettes sur le ruissellement et l'érosion par rapport aux parcours dans les montagnes semi-arides du Haut-Atlas de Marrakech (Maroc). In : Roose Eric (ed.), Duchaufour H. (ed.), De Noni Georges (ed.), Lutte antiérosive : réhabilitation des sols tropicaux et protection contre les pluies exceptionnelles. Marseille : IRD , 2012, 5 p. (Colloques et Séminaires). ISBN 978-2-7099-1728-5

Er-Raki, S., Ezzahar, J., Khabba, S., Jarlan, L., Chehbouni, G., 2012. Micrometeorology tools for measuring evapotranspiration from the leaf to the region. In: Evapotranspiration: Processes, Sources and Environmental Implications. Nova Science Publishers, Inc. 1-23.  ISBN:978-1-62417-138-3 (https://www.novapublishers.com/catalog/product_info.php?products_id=37901).

Ezzahar J. , Er-Raki, S., Bouarifi W., Jarlan L., Marah H., Khabba S., Ed Dabdouby M., Chehbouni G., 2012. Estimation of the evapotranspiration over sparse and tall vegetation using the Large Aperture Scintillometer. In: Evapotranspiration: Processes, Sources and Environmental Implications. Nova Science Publishers, Inc., 167-181. ISBN: 978-1-62417-138-3.1 (https://www.novapublishers.com/catalog/product_info.php?products_id=37901)    

Others

Berjamy, Le Page, "The Tensift Hydraulic Basin Agency uses satellite information to improve management of water resources", in Satellites going Local, The water edition.  http://www.eurisy.org/index.php/news/item/306-satellites-going-local-2013.html

"The Tensift Hydraulic Basin Agency in Morocco relies on remote sensing for Integrated Water Resources Management" in Window on GMES, special issue "Discover what GMES can do for european region and cities", pp 30-31

Movie

“De l’eau, du blé et des hommes”, 2016 - 12 min - A film shot by M.-C. Burg, B. Mantaux and T. Chevallier in the frame of the undergraduate interdisciplinary exchange program of IRD Body/Sorbonne-Universités. With the participation of M. H. Kharrou (ORMVAH), O. Merlin (IRD), S. Khabba (UCAM), A. Chakir (IRD), A. Amazirh (PhD student), B. Aït Hssaine (PhD student), Z. Rafi (Master student) and Jamal El-Fakh (Master Student). 


Implementation Plans

The team has installed an observatory running since 2002 (http://www.cesbio.ups-tlse.fr/fr/sudmed/sites_ateliers_maroc.html) which is collecting basically meteorological data (rainfall, wind speed, T, Rg) for about ten permanent stations, and additionally some fluxes experiments measuring especially ET using eddy correlation, soil moisture). These flux measurements are done each year on some annual crops (wheat) or during several years on permanent land cover (trees, rainfed wheat).

Chichaoua’17 experiment

For the 2016-2017 season, and experiment comparing drip and traditional gravity irrigated wheat was installed including a lysimeter to monitor soil percolation. The objective is to evaluate the water budget and associated (irrigation, evaporation, transpiration, drainage) fluxes of two 1.5 ha drip-irrigated wheat fields, one field being irrigated according to the water needs estimated by the FAO method and the other field being irrigated exactly the same way except during controlled stress periods when irrigation is cut. Station-based instrumentation includes eddy covariance towers, radiometers in various spectral bands, lysimeters and ground heat flux, sap flow and soil moisture/potential/temperature sensors. The response of wheat to various levels of water availability is also characterized by manual measurements of carbon and water fluxes using a canopy chamber, and at leaf scale the water potential, stomatal conductance, chlorophyll content and fluorescence. 

Thanks to this dataset, we want to analyze  the link between Photochemical Reflectance Index (PRI) and the Light Use Efficiency (LUE) at canopy scale on wheat grown under different water regimes (irrigated or rainfed). The Photochemical Reflectance Index (PRI) is based on the short term reversible xanthophylls pigment changes accompanying plant stress and therefore of the associated photosynthetic activities. Strong relationships between PRI and LUE were shown at leaf and canopy scales and over a wide range of species (Garbulsky et al., 2011). But very few previous works have explored the potential link with plant water status. In this context, we investigate the daily and seasonal dynamics of PRI; linking its variations to meteorological factors (global radiation and sun angle effects, soil water content, relative air humidity …) and plant processes. We explore relationships between PRI and sapflow measurements (i.e. transpiration rate) to evaluate the potential of this index to detect and monitor a moderate plant water stress.

The experiment on winter wheat for the 2016-2017 season, including eddy correlation (right) and lysimeter (left).

The Sidi Rahal monitoring station was set up in a rainfed wheat field in December 2013. Due to an unusual lack of precipitation late 2015, the winter wheat crop had not been planted during the 2015-2016 season. As a result, the crop field remained in bare soil conditions from January to September 2016. This unique “bare soil” data set is being used to test new radar-based retrieval approaches of surface soil moisture and new formulations of soil evaporation.

Tahanaout experiment

A 1.4 km scintillometer transect has been running for one year on traditional agriculture areas (including mainly olive trees and annual crops (wheat mainly) in the Haouz plain at the outlet of the high Atlas mountains. To complement this set-up and especially test aggregation of fluxes over heterogeneous surfaces, two eddy correlation towers are currently being installed under this transect.


Site Description

Locations

The watershed is located in the Tensift region of Marrakech in Morocco (Figure 1). Covering an area of about 20,000 km ², it is composed of 3 hydrological parts. South of the basin, the northern slopes of the Atlas is well-watered and snow (up to 600 mm / year). Peaking at over 4,000 m, those mountains are the water tower of the Haouz plain. In the center, a vast plain, characterized by a semi-arid climate (rainfall 250 mm / year), and where the water flows are predominantly vertical except for wadis and water infrastructures. The main irrigated areas are located in the central and eastern part (2000 km ²) and rainfed cereals  is practiced on the rest of the plain. The cultivation of wheat is majority with over 80% of acreage covered followed by olive trees occupy about 13% of the plain, the remaining area being occupied by citrus, apricot, market gardens, vineyards, fodder . These proportions change significantly in the irrigated area where tree crops dominate. In the north, the small chain of arid mountains "Jbilets" has, in the present state of knowledge, little influence on the hydrological cycle in the region.

Figure 1: location of the Tensift Watershed in Morocco


Figure 2: location of the Haouz plain and the two sites in the Tensift Watershed

Two test sites are considered for JECAM:

The R3 sector is a 3000 ha area with flood irrigation on demand located 40 km east of Marrakech. The main crop is Winter Wheat. The other crops represent less than 20% of the cultivated area being Sugar Beet, Olive trees, etc. Soil texture is mainly Clay Loam. The growing season of winter wheat is December-June, sugar beet is from November to june, and Olive grove is evergreen with latency during the summer. The whole site have been under study since 2002 and benefited from several remote sensing campaigns with optical (SPOT, Landsat, Formosat), thermal (Aster, Landsat), and radar (ASAR) satellite timeseries.
Tha Agafay plantation is a mandarine orchard located 20 km east of Marrakech which extends on 500 ha. The plantation benefits from drip irrigation. Soil texture is loam, mandarines trees are evergreen with latency during the summer. The site is monitored since 2006 with an eddy covariance system, soil temperature and humidity sensors, fluxmeters. Sapflow measurements for separation of evaporation and transpiration have been carried on.

A picture of a wheat field in the Haouz plain of Marrakech, with the High Atlas Mountain in the back.


Specific Project Objectives & Deliverables

Main research axes

Based on a lot of work done by the team since 2002 regarding crop hydrological functioning, the research in 2016 focused on the surface evapotranspiration and soil moisture retrieval (both surface and root zone) using microwave and thermal data, using disaggregation. This type of information is potentially used directly by irrigation managers, and also to feed land surface models.

Besides, work is done on the fractioning between vegetation transpiration and soil evaporation, as a key knowledge to assess crop water use efficiency and to suggest irrigation management improvement.

Also we are still working on yield assessment which is a key variable for decision makers.

6.1       Soil moisture retrieval

Currently, the soil moisture data sets available at global scale have a spatial resolution much coarser than the typical size (several ha) of fields. Especially, the soil moisture retrieved from passive microwave observations such as C-band AMSR-E and L-band SMOS data have a spatial resolution of about 60 km and 40 km, respectively. The recent SMAP mission, launched in 2015, ensures continuity of L-band derived soil moisture products with similar resolutions. In this context, downscaling methodologies have been developed to improve the spatial resolution of readily available passive microwave-derived soil moisture data. DISPATCH (DISaggregation based on Physical And Theoretical scale CHange, Merlin et al. 2013) estimates the soil moisture variability within a 40 km resolution SMOS/SMAP pixel at the target 1 km resolution using MODIS data and the target 100 m resolution using Landsat data.

V. Stefan (PhD UPS 2013-2016) improved DISPATCH by integrating a physically-based energy balance model forced by meteorological data available within irrigated perimeters. The approach was validated over the Agues Segarra-Garrigues site in Spain (Stefan et al. 2017).

B. Ait Hssaine (PhD thesis, UCAM/UPS, 201--2018) is working on the retrieval of surface soil moisture at multiple scales by developing synergies between Sentinel-1 radar and 1 km resolution DISPATCH (disaggregated from SMOS using MODIS) data.

Y. Malbéteau (PhD UPS 2013-2016) improved the temporal resolution of DISPATCH data by assimilating the disaggregated soil moisture in a dynamic surface soil water balance model. The approach was tested on a daily basis over the Haouz plain (Malbéteau et al. 2017b). Being based on global scale SMOS, MODIS and ECMWF reanalysis data, it is easily transferable to other semi-arid areas. Moreover, the method has potential for retrieving irrigation amounts at the perimeter scale.

A. Mohamed (PhD isardSAT 2015-2018, seconded to UCAM during 9 months) is developing synergies between 1 km resolution DISPATCH (SMOS disaggregated using MODIS) and Sentinel-1 radar data to derive an enhanced soil moisture product at multiple resolutions.

A. Amazirh (PhD thesis, UCAM/UPS 2016-2018) is developing synergies between Sentinel-1 radar and thermal/optical Landsat-7, 8 data to retrieve the surface soil moisture at high spatio-temporal resolution (crop field scale) without any prior knowledge of soil roughness parameters.

Fig. 8: Image of the mean volumetric soil moisture in 2014 over Tensift Haouz region. Black lines represent the irrigated areas (extracted from Malbéteau et al. 2017b).

 

6.2       Partition between evaporation and transpiration

The purpose is, beyond the estimates of evapotranspiration, to separate soil evaporation from plant transpiration. This would allow the assessment of irrigation efficiency, considering the objective is to minimize evaporation, and this a major stake in the area were water is scarce.

B. Aït Hssaine (PhD UCAM/UPS 2016-2018) is developing a calibration strategy to integrate both land surface temperature and near-surface soil moisture data in a two-source energy budget model. State-of-the-art evapotranspiration models are generally based on thermal/visible data only and rely on ad hoc assumptions to represent the evaporation/transpiration components. The new approach integrates microwave-derived surface soil moisture as additional constraint on soil evaporation, and subsequently on vegetation water status.

Y. Malbéteau (PhD UPS 2013-2016) developed a method for correcting the remotely sensed land surface temperature for topographic effects. Thermal-based evapotranspiration models could now be applied to hilly and mountainous agricultural areas (Malbéteau et al. 2017a).

L. Olivera (PhD UPS 2016-2019) is investigating different coupling schemes between the FAO-based water budget model and remote sensing data available in the shortwave, thermal infrared and microwave bands to estimate the root zone soil moisture and crop water needs at the daily/field scale.

G. Aouade is combining the isotopic approach (oxygen stable isotopes) and the physically-based modelling of water and energy exchange at the soil-vegetation-atmosphere interface to monitor and predict evapotranspiration partition. She has evaluated, in particular, the domain of validity and the performances of a double energy budget SVAT model recently developed by meteo-france on the main crops of the region based on the Tensift observatory database.

6.3       Stress detection

Z. Rafi (PhD UCAM 2017-2019) is testing the usefulness of (1) thermal, (2) “PRI” shortwaves reflectances (531 nm, 570 nm and between 680-690 nm) and (3) C-band microwave data to characterize the water status of crops. He is also evaluating the complementarity of those wavelengths to better represent the non-stomatal (evaporation) and stomatal (transpiration) fluxes in land surface models.

6.4       Remote sensing for irrigated crops water budget monitoring

A. Diarra evaluated the performance and the domain of validity of the two-source energy balance model (TSEB) for the monitoring of actual evapotranspiration ( ) as a first step towards its use for irrigation planning. Secondary objectives are to analyse the evapotranspiration partition between evaporation (E) and transpiration (T) and the ability to detect water stress over irrigated annual crops. Within this context, TSEB was compared to the calibrated FAO-56 dual approach, taken as a reference tool for the monitoring of plant water consumption. TSEB computes  as the residual of a double component energy balance driven by the radiative surface temperature ( ) used as a proxy of crop hydric conditions; the FAO-56 dual crop coefficient approach uses the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) as a proxy of Basal Crop Coefficient ( ) and assesses the hydric status directly by solving a two layer soil water budget. Both approaches are evaluated using in situ forcings measured over four plots of wheat and sugar beet located in the Haouz plain (Marrakech, Morocco) that were instrumented with eddy covariance systems during the 2012 and 2013 growing seasons. Both models offer fair performances compared to observations with Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) lower than 1 mm day-1 apart from the FAO-56 dual approach on the sugar beet plot because of uncertain irrigation inputs. This highlights a major weakness of this model when water inputs are uncertain; a very likely case at the plot scale. By contrast, the TSEB model offers smoother performances in all cases. Finally, the partition of  between soil evaporation and plant transpiration is estimated indirectly by confrontation between simulated soil evaporation and surface (0–5 cm) soil moisture acquired spatially with ThetaProbe sensors and taken as a proxy of soil evaporation. TSEB evaporation is well correlated to surface soil moisture (r=0.82) for low Leaf Area Index (LAI) values (<1.5 m² m-²). In addition, TSEB predicted partition compares well to snapshot measurements based on the stable isotope method. This in-depth comparison of two simple tools to monitor  leads us to the conclusion that, if thermal images were available at high repetivity (as planned in future High spatial resolution thermal mission), the TSEB model could reasonably be used to map  and possibly for the decision-making process of irrigation scheduling.

Besides the thermal approach, we develop a simple SVAT approach based on NDVI forcing to monitor the crop water budget. The Sat-Irr tool (http://osr-cesbio.ups-tlse.fr/Satirr/) is an on-line software based on the FAO-56 approach aiming to help irrigation scheduling at the plot scale. All the technical processing step (data downloading, image correction, data processing, etc...) are totally transparent to the users. An experiment designed to evaluate the tool in terms of both the quality of irrigation advise and of the way the farmers perceived this new information is actually carried out in the Tensift region. To this objective, about 8 farmers in different irrigated sectors have been trained to the use of Sat-Irr and receive their customized advises of irrigation schedule. Surveys are carried out in parallel to evaluate the difference between what has been scheduled by the tool and what was done by the farmers and also to understand the main reasons of the gaps. In addition, a network of low cost soil moisture sensor has been installed on the monitored fields with the objective of testing the assimilation of soil moisture data to improve the performance of the SatIrr tool. 


In Situ Observations

  1. Parameter: Land Cover
    Data Collection Protocol:

    Land Cover and Agricultural Practices

    Site: R3 and Agafay

    Survey
    Acquistion Mode: O
    Field Campaign: 2002, 2004, 2006, 2010...

    Frequency: Annual
  2. Parameter: H
    Data Collection Protocol:

    Water and Energy Budget


    Site: Intensive sites

    Turbulent fluxes
    Acquisition Mode: A
     

    Frequency: 30 min.
  3. Parameter: RH
    Data Collection Protocol:

    Weather

    Site: 15 stations
    Weather Station
    Acquisition Mode: A

    Frequency: 30 min to 1 hour
  4. Parameter: Remote Sensing
    Data Collection Protocol:

    Land Cover and Agricultural Practises

    Site: R3 and Agafay

    Survey
    Acquistion Mode: A
    Field Campaign: 2001-............

    Frequency: Annual
  5. Parameter: LE
    Data Collection Protocol:

    Water and Energy Budget

    Site: Intensive sites

    Turbulent fluxes
    Acquisition Mode: A
     

    Frequency: 30 min.
  6. Parameter: Ra
    Data Collection Protocol:

    Weather

    Site: 15 stations
    Weather Station
    Acquisition Mode: A

    Frequency: 30 min. to 1 hour
  7. Parameter: Plowing
    Data Collection Protocol:

    Land Cover and Agricultural Practices

    Site: R3

    Survey
    Acquisition Mode: O
    Field Campaign: Since 2006

    Frequency: Agricultural Season
  8. Parameter: vertical profiles of temperature
    Data Collection Protocol:

    Water and Energy Budget


    Site: Intensive sites
    Acquisition Mode: A
     

    Frequency: 30 min.
  9. Parameter: R0
    Data Collection Protocol:

    Weather

    Site: 15 stations
    Weather Station
    Acquisition Mode: A

    Frequency: 30 min. to1 hour
  10. Parameter: Sowing
    Data Collection Protocol:

    Land Cover and Agricultural Practices


    Site: R3

    Survey
    Acquisition Mode: O
    Field Campaign: Since 2006
     

    Frequency: Agricultural Season
  11. Parameter: Vertical profiles of humidity
    Data Collection Protocol:

    Water and Energy Budget


    Site: Intensive sites
    Reflectrometry probes
    Acquisition Mode: A
     

    Frequency: 30 min.
  12. Parameter: Rain
    Data Collection Protocol:

    Weather

    Site: 36 pluvios
    Pluviometer
    Acquisition Mode: O
    From 60's for some pluviometers

    Frequency: Daily
  13. Parameter: Irrigation
    Data Collection Protocol:

    Land Cover and Agricultural Practices

    Site: R3

    Survey
    Acquisition Mode: O
    Field Campaign: 2002, 2006, 2008 ....
     

    Frequency: By water turn
  14. Parameter: Surface humidity
    Data Collection Protocol:

    Water and Energy Budget


    Site:
    Capacitive probes
    Acquisition Mode: O
     

    Frequency: 1 - 7 days
  15. Parameter: Reflectance
    Data Collection Protocol:

    Insitu remote sensing measurements

    Site: R3, wheat
    Cropscan
    Acquisition Mode: O
    Field Campaign:

    Frequency: 15 days
  16. Parameter: fraction cover, LAI, Biomass
    Data Collection Protocol:

    Vegetation

    Site R3

    Hemi-photo
    Acquisition Mode: O
    Field campaigns. 2003. 2004. 2006, 2012, 2013

    Frequency: 10 days
  17. Parameter: Irrigation
    Data Collection Protocol:

    Land Cover Agricultural Practices

    Site: Agafay

    Survey
    Acquisition Mode: O
    Field Campaign: 2006..........
     

    Frequency: Drip (daily)
  18. Parameter: Water fluxes
    Data Collection Protocol:

    Water and Energy Budget


    Site: R3
    Fluxmeter
    Acquisition Mode: A
     

    Frequency: 30 min.
  19. Parameter: TS
    Data Collection Protocol:

    Insitu remote sensing measurements

    Site: Intensive sites
    Thermoradiometer
    Acquisition Mode: A
    Field Campaign:

    Frequency: 30 min.
  20. Parameter: Fraction, LAI , Biomass
    Data Collection Protocol:

    Vegetation

    Site Agafay

    Destructive cut
    Acquisition Mode: O
    Field Campaigns: 2003, 2004, 2006, 2012, 2013

    Frequency: annual
  21. Parameter: Rn
    Data Collection Protocol:

    Water and Energy Budget


    Site: Intensives sites

    Radiometer
    Acquisition Mode: A
    Field Campaign:
     

    Frequency: 30 min.
  22. Parameter: P
    Data Collection Protocol:

    Weather


    Site: 15 stations
    Weather Station
    Acquisition Mode: A
     

    Frequency: 30 min to 1 hour
  23. Parameter: Optical and water vapor
    Data Collection Protocol:

    Insitu remote sensing measurements

    Site: Saada
    CIMEL photometer
    Acquisition Mode: A
    Field Campaign: 2004 ......

    Frequency: 15 min.
  24. Parameter: Yield (wheat)
    Data Collection Protocol:

    Vegetation

    Site: R3

    Survey
    Aquistion Mode - O
    Field Campaign:  2013

    Frequency: Annual
  25. Parameter: G
    Data Collection Protocol:

    Water and Energy Budget


    Site: Intensive sites

    Flux plates
    Acquisition Mode: A
     

    Frequency: 30 min.
  26. Parameter: U
    Data Collection Protocol:

    Weather

    Site: 15 stations
    Weather Station
    Acquisition Mode: A

    Frequency: 30 min to 1 hour

EO Data Requirements

Approximate Start Date of Acquisition: December 2012
Approximate End Date of Acquisition: July 2013
Spatial Resolution: 5m - 20m
Temporal Frequency: Weekly (Approximately)
Latency of Data Delivery: 30 days
Wavelengths Required: VIS, NIR, SWIR
Across Swath: 80km
Along Track: 80km

SAR Data Requirements

Approximate Start Date of Acquisition: September 1st
Approximate End Date of Acquisition: June 31st
Spatial Resolution: 10m
Temporal Frequency: 7 days
Latency of Data Delivery: 7 days
Wavelengths Required: X, C
Polarization HH, VV
Incidence Angle Restrictions:
Across Track: 100km
Along Track: 100km

Locations


Optical Sensors

SPOT-6
Imaging Mode:
Spatial Resolution: 5m
Acquisition Frequency: 4 times
Pre-Processing Level: Ortho
Application:

SPOT-4 (Take 5)
Imaging Mode:
Spatial Resolution: 20m
Acquisition Frequency: 20 times
Pre-Processing Level: Ortho + atmospheric correction
Application:

SPOT-5
Imaging Mode:
Spatial Resolution: 10m
Acquisition Frequency: 12 times
Pre-Processing Level: Ortho
Application:

JECAM | Joint Experiment for Crop Assessment and Monitoring | Group on Earth Observation

©2013 Joint Experiment for Crop Assessment and Monitoring © HER MAJESTY THE QUEEN IN RIGHT OF CANADA SA MAJESTE LA REINE DU CHEF DU CANADA (2012)