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JECAM | Joint Experiment for Crop Assessment and Monitoring

Canadian Red River Watershed

Project Overview

  1. Crop identification and acreage estimation: Estimates are required end-of-season. An early in-season estimate is desirable.
  2. Residue and Tillage mapping: Monitoring of fields through fall and spring tillage season with minimum requirement of weekly mapping. This aspect of the project targets identification of tillage events and estimates of residue cover and changes in residue cover due to tillage activities.
  3. Soil moisture: Information is required in near-real time (within hours) for watershed and field level estimates of absolute volumetric surface soil moisture and changes in soil moisture. Regional estimates are needed to define risk due to moisture anomalies. These regional estimates are to be provided on a weekly basis.
  4. Crop biophysical variables (LAI): Information is needed frequently throughout the growing season (if possible, weekly from emergence to harvest). LAI estimates are to be assimilated into locally calibrated yield models, and to provide a more quantitative evaluation (relative to NDVI) of crop condition.

The mapping resolution varies from within field to watershed and regional mapping. The timeliness (with regards to growing season) varies depending on the mapping activity.


Project Reports

2015 Site Progress Report

2014 Site Progress Report

Roy, S.  2014.  Simulation of Spatial and Temporal Variability of Soil Moisture Using the Simultaneous Heat And Water (SHAW) Model: Applications to Passive Microwave Remote Sensing, Graduate Thesis, University of Guelph, Department of Geography.

Rowlandson, T.  L., A.  A.  Berg, P.  R.  Bullock, E.  R.  Ojo, H.  McNairn, G.  Wiseman, and M.  H.  Cosh, 2013: Evaluation of several calibration procedures for a portable soil moisture sensorJournal of Hydrology, 498, 335-344.


Implementation Plans

Crop mapping at 30m pixel resolution

Crop Condition/Stress

Soil Moisture

Crop Residue, Tillage and Crop Cover Mapping

 

Plans for Next Growing Season:

The EO-based 2015 crop inventory map (30 m) resolution will be created for the whole agricultural area (accuracy of crop classes around 85%) covering the JECAM monitoring area. Field work will be done to record crop types for all fields within some of the monitoring sections located in the JECAM monitoring area. Results will be applied to develop methods for very accurate crop area estimations.

Crop conditions will be monitored at weekly time intervals in an area south of the JECAM monitoring site (Figure 1). Methods to derived crop growth stage and harvest status from radar and optical satellites will be developed.

Soil moisture mapping from active and passive microwave is being piloted over this site due to the high quality soil moisture validation available.


Site Description

Locations

Red River Watershed
Site Extent   Centroid: 49.425, -97.707
Top left: 50.584, -100.146 Bottom Right: 48.999, -95.407

Brunkild Sub-Watershed
Site Extent   Centroid: 49.674, -97.995
Top left: 49.679, -98.196 Bottom Right: 49.632, -97.804

Figure 1: Location of the JECAM monitoring site in Southern Manitoba, Canada

Example of the general morphology and landscape of the JECAM monitoring site in Manitoba, Canada.


Specific Project Objectives & Deliverables

Mapping Agricultural Areas

Estimating Crop Areas

Crop Growing Conditions Over the Growing Season: temperature, precipitation, soil moisture, evapotranspiration

Estimation of Biophysical Variables: NDVI, LAI, biomass, fAPAR, yield

Phenological Events

Integration of the EO-Derived Information Into Crop/Agro-Met Models

Forecasting Agricultural Variables from Crop/Agro-Met Models

In situ Data:

Presently there are 12 in situ soil moisture monitoring stations in the Red River basin site as indicated in Figure 2. Intensive crop biophysical parameters were measured weekly throughout the growing season in 2014 for spring wheat, corn, soybean, and canola.  Results

Crop types map (30 m) resolution was created for the whole area including the JECAM monitoring site for the 2014 growing season.  Methods for accurate crop area estimation based on the annual crop inventory and crop types identified at the location of the sampling framework of the monitoring sections are being developed.


In Situ Observations

  1. Parameter: soil moisture
    Data Collection Protocol:

    there are 12 in situ soil moisture monitoring stations in the Red River basin site, measured weekly throughout the growing season in 2014

    Frequency:

EO Data Requirements

Approximate Start Date of Acquisition: May 1: May shift slightly from one year to next due to changes in moisture/temperatures
Approximate End Date of Acquisition: October 1: May shift slightly from one year to next due to changes in moisture/temperatures
Spatial Resolution: 60 m (30 m preferred)
Temporal Frequency: 5 times over season: One acquisition over bare soil conditions; Then approximately one acquisition per month
Latency of Data Delivery: weekly
Wavelengths Required: B,G,R,NIR
Across Swath: 325 km
Along Track: 175 km

SAR Data Requirements

Approximate Start Date of Acquisition: May 1: May shift slightly from one year to next due to changes in moisture/temperatures
Approximate End Date of Acquisition: October 1: May shift slightly from one year to next due to changes in moisture/temperatures
Spatial Resolution: 30 m (10 m preferred): Requires higher resolution due to SAR speckle
Temporal Frequency: 5 times over season: One over bare soil conditions; Then approximately once per month
Latency of Data Delivery: weekly
Wavelengths Required: X, C and L: Require higher frequencies for lower biomass crop identification and lower frequencies for larger biomass crops
Polarization Dual (VV,VH), polarimetric
Incidence Angle Restrictions: No restriction
Across Track: 100 km (Brunkild Watershed): Entire Red River Watershed preferred.
Along Track: 50 km (Brunkild Watershed): Entire Red River Watershed preferred.

Locations

Red River Watershed

Centroid
Latitude: 49.425
Longitude: -97.707

Site Extent
Top left
Latitude: 50.584
Longitude: -97.707
Bottom Right
Latitude: 48.999
Longitude: -95.407

Brunkild Sub-Watershed

Centroid
Latitude: 49.674
Longitude: -97.995

Site Extent
Top left
Latitude: 49.679
Longitude: -97.995
Bottom Right
Latitude: 49.632
Longitude: -97.804


Optical Sensors

SPOT-4/5
Imaging Mode: Multi-spectral
Spatial Resolution: 10-20 m
Acquisition Frequency: All cloud free data over Brunkild sub-watershed
Pre-Processing Level: Radiometrically Corrected and Geo-coded
Application:

Landsat-5/7
Imaging Mode: Multi-spectral
Spatial Resolution: 30 m
Acquisition Frequency: All cloud free data over Brunkild sub-watershed
Pre-Processing Level: Radiometrically Corrected and Geo-coded
Application:

RapidEye
Imaging Mode: Multi-spectral
Spatial Resolution: 6.5 m
Acquisition Frequency: All cloud free data over Brunkild sub-watershed
Pre-Processing Level: Radiometrically Corrected and Geo-coded
Application:

LISS-3
Imaging Mode: Multi-spectral
Spatial Resolution: 23.5 m
Acquisition Frequency: All cloud free data over Brunkild sub-watershed
Pre-Processing Level: Radiometrically Corrected and Geo-coded
Application:

LISS-4
Imaging Mode: Multi-spectral
Spatial Resolution: 5.8 m
Acquisition Frequency: All cloud free data over Brunkild sub-watershed
Pre-Processing Level: Radiometrically Corrected and Geo-coded
Application:

AWiFS
Imaging Mode:
Spatial Resolution: 56 m
Acquisition Frequency: All cloud free data over entire Red River Watershed
Pre-Processing Level: Radiometrically Corrected and Geo-coded
Application:

JECAM | Joint Experiment for Crop Assessment and Monitoring | Group on Earth Observation

©2013 Joint Experiment for Crop Assessment and Monitoring © HER MAJESTY THE QUEEN IN RIGHT OF CANADA SA MAJESTE LA REINE DU CHEF DU CANADA (2012)